Key Performance Measures
What are Key Performance Measures (KPM)?
The set of KPM is a school self-evaluation (SSE) data system to complement the School Development and Accountability framework. Built on the Performance Indicators (PI) framework, KPM provide quantitative and objective data to supplement PI, which are mainly qualitative in nature, in support of a systematic and evidence-based SSE, so as to promote school self-improvement and sustainable development.
What is the framework of KPM?
KPM encompass a total of 25 items. They provide balanced KPM data under the four domains of the Performance Indicators for Hong Kong Schools to facilitate school self-evaluation (SSE). To underline the important role of stakeholders in SSE, stakeholders’ perception is included in a number of KPM items. Stakeholders’ perception can be collected using the Stakeholder Survey.
Framework of KPM Management & Organisation
1. Stakeholders' perception of School Management
2. Resources deployment
3. Stakeholders' perception of Professional Leadership
4. Stakeholders' perception of Teachers' Professional Development
5. Teachers’ professional training ##
Learning & Teaching
6. Number of active school days
7. Percentage of lesson time for Key Learning Areas
8. Learning experiences relevant to national education
9. Subject choices at senior secondary levels*
10. Stakeholders’ perception of Curriculum and Assessment
11. Stakeholders’ perception of Teaching
12. Stakeholders’ perception of Student Learning
School Ethos & Student Support
13. Stakeholders’ perception of Support for Student Development
14. Stakeholders’ perception of School Climate
15. Destinations of graduates*
16. Stakeholders’ perception of Home-school Cooperation
17. Affective Development^
18. Pre-S1 Hong Kong Attainment Test*#
19. Public examination results*
20. Academic value-added performance*#
21. Percentage of students participating in territory-wide inter-school competitions
22. Percentage of students participating in uniformed groups/ community services
23. Students’ attendance rate
24. Percentage of students within the acceptable weight range
25. Physical fitness performance
## Partly not applicable to special schools
* Not applicable to primary schools
# Not applicable to special schools
^ Relevant data can be obtained from APASO
There are different KPM items for secondary, primary and special schools respectively, overviews of KPM items can be downloaded from school’s ESDA.
What are the uses of KPM?
KPM help schools review the effectiveness of their work with a view to enhancing self-improvement and sustainable development. They also help schools report their performance to key stakeholders, thereby enhancing transparency of school work and realising the spirit of accountability.
What are the major revisions in the updated KPM for aligning SSE under the enhanced School Development and Accountability (SDA) framework?
KPM is a set of key data for school self-evaluation (SSE), which is built on the framework of the Performance Indicators for Hong Kong Schools (PI). Under the enhanced SDA framework, the framework of refined KPM remains unchanged and continues to comprise four domains in accordance with the PI. To facilitate the use of seven learning goals as the focus for reflection in SSE, three new items are added in the KPM (Resources Deployment, Learning Experiences relevant to National Education, Physical Fitness Performance), in addition to new sub-items under some of the existing items (e.g., professional training on STEAM education). Schools can integrate, interpret and use the enriched KPM data, together with other data and information of schools in an integrative manner to conduct SSE.
Is it necessary for schools to submit their KPM data collected to the Education Bureau (EDB)?
Starting from the 2023/24 school year, schools will be required to annually collect the KPM data, including the relevant data of the Stakeholder Survey and APASO, to conduct SSE. In addition to reporting the data to Incorporated Management Committee/ School Management Committee, schools should submit the data to the EDB for compilation of reference data to facilitate SSE, and for better understanding of the current situation of school education. As for this school year (i.e. the 2022/23 school year), schools should continue the existing practice of submitting the KPM data at the end of the school development cycle.
Why does the EDB produce KPM reference data?
The EDB produces KPM reference data in order to provide schools with additional data and information of an objective nature to facilitate schools' interpretation of their own KPM data and understanding of their performance, thus enhancing systematic and evidence-based school self-evaluation.
How can schools facilitate the EDB's generation of KPM reference data?
Every year after schools collected their KPM data (including the relevant data of the Stakeholder Survey and APASO), they should submit the data to the EDB through ESDA for compilation of reference data to facilitate SSE.
When schools conduct Stakeholder Survey (students or parents) and questionnaire survey of the APASO for collecting data for the KPM, what is the minimum percentage of stakeholders that must be randomly sampled to make the survey results acceptable?
In general, the questionnaire surveys should cover all levels as much as possible. The greater the number of respondents for the questionnaires, the more accurate the average scores in reflecting the overall perception. In handling student questionnaire surveys, many schools already have good practices which require all students to complete questionnaires yearly to provide data for their annual self-evaluation. Considering the operation of schools and the need for representative data, schools may conduct sampling through the e-Platform of School Development and Accountability (ESDA) and draw a sample made up of not less than half of the students covering all levels (secondary schools may choose whether to cover Secondary 6 students according to their school contexts) for a questionnaire survey. For example, schools may use odd or even class numbers to select students to conduct questionnaire surveys. While reducing the number of questionnaires, it also ensures that the results are representative. For schools with a small number of students, such as less than 35 students in half of a level, it is recommended that all students fill out the questionnaire. For the parents’ stakeholder survey, the practice is theoretically the same. However, due to different school contexts, schools may continue to use their previous sampling method to arrange for parents to fill in the questionnaire.
Why is it used to accept the number of respondents to be at least 35 and now recommending to randomly sample at least half of the students?
Theoretically, when the number of respondents reaches 35, the average scores derived from the survey are approximately normally distributed, which can facilitate statistical analyses. At the same time, the larger the number of respondents to the survey, the more accurately the average score obtained to reflect the perception of stakeholders as a whole. In response to the update of the self-evaluation tools, we have considered different factors to provide more precise sampling recommendations for schools.
Would the sub-item relating to STEM/STEAM education of the updated KPM item 5 “Teachers’ Professional training” be repetitive with the other information that schools are required to submit to the EDB?
To tie in with the school work on nurturing students’ qualities on seven learning goals, the KPM item 5 “Teachers’ Professional training” under the “Management and Organisation” domain provides schools with relevant data on teachers’ professional training, facilitating schools to conduct evidence-based self-evaluation. The objectives and focuses of the collection of above KPM data vary from those other data collections relating to STEAM education required by the EDB.
Under the enhanced SDA framework, instead of following the usual practice of collecting the KPM data at the end of their school development cycle, schools are required to collect the data annually. Why is there such a change? Are there support measures to relieve the workload of teachers?
To further strengthen schools’ capacity to use data, facilitate schools to conduct evidence-based school self-evaluation (SSE) systematically for evaluating the effectiveness of their work, and ensure accountability in the spirit of school-based management, starting from the 2023/24 school year, schools will be required to annually collect KPM data, including the relevant data of the Stakeholder Surveys and APASO, to conduct SSE. In addition to reporting the data to the Incorporated Management Committee/School Management Committee, schools should submit the data to the EDB for compilation of reference data to facilitate SSE, and for better understanding of the current situation of school education. Under this arrangement, school management could refer to the annual SSE data to timely and comprehensively understand the student performance and the effectiveness of related work, and timely adjust the objectives and strategies of work tasks if deemed appropriate. Schools’ collection of updated KPM annually would facilitate them to conduct SSE of “Planning-Implementation- Evaluation” cycle in a more focused manner using the seven learning goals as the focus for reflection. Schools would have more room to trim the existing school-based surveys to relieve the workload of teachers. In addition, schools, in general, have annually collected and archived the data relevant to new KPM items (e.g. data of teachers’ professional training and students participating in territory-wide inter-school competitions) all along, these regular data could be readily submitted after slight organisation. The EDB has launched the revamped ESDA, which continues to provide a “One Stop” solution to assist schools to collect and manage the SSE data. It includes the function for conducting online stakeholder surveys and APASO surveys in tablet computers, which help relieve the workload of teachers.
Have the new KPM items been updated on ESDA?
Schools can now download the details of the revised KPM and submit the KPM data through the revamped ESDA.
Regarding the KPM data to be submitted by schools to their Incorporated Management Committee annually, are they raw data or processed data?
Starting from the 2023/23 school year, schools will be required to annually collect KPM data to conduct self-evaluation and report the data to the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC). The KPM report, generated via ESDA, contains processed data to facilitate schools to incorporate other data and information for a holistic review on the overall performance of schools. Schools could decide whether to report other information, such as data on individual questions of relevant stakeholder surveys and APASO based on school-specific needs, to the IMC. As such, the IMC can understand how good schools are in nurturing the desired qualities in students in view of enhancing transparency and accountability in the spirit of school-based management.
What are the reminders for special schools in collecting the KPM data?
As per the current practice, each special school could flexibly adopt and collect KPM data in accordance with its school context (including student ability). A few KPM items, including “Pre-S1 Hong Kong Attainment Test” (KPM 18) and “Academic value-added performance” (KPM 20) and individual sub-item, including “The percentage of teachers who have special education qualifications” are not applicable to special schools.
Other Frequently Asked Questions